36 SHIPPING PRACTICE Here again the burden of proof is upon the person who claims exemption through this section. Para. 3 stipulates that the shipper shall not be res- ponsible for any loss sustained by the carrier arising from any cause without the act, fault or neglect of the shipper, liis agents or servants. Para. 4 deals with one of the most important points of shipping law, which is deviation. It states that "any deviation in saving or attempting to save life or property or any reasonable deviation shall not be deemed an in- fringment of the Rules, and the carrier shall not be liable for loss or damage resulting therefrom." Deviation may be divided into three types, deviation, justifiable deviation, and reasonable deviation. The term deviation means any departure from the set course ofithe voyage, and from the moment a vessel leaves her course the carrier loses all rights to the exemptions and immunities expressed in his bill of lading. But deviation may be made justifiable in cases where it is in the interest of all the parties, such as putting into a port of refuge, or deviating to save life or property. It is curious to note that in this section the term life or property is stated. This is the first time that any permission to save property alone has been incorporated in statute law or allowed in shipping. An explanation of the word "reasonable," which is a word also found in this section, may be made by classing deviations of this type as deviations made in the interest of all parties concerned. Deviation in itself is something to be abhorred, for unless the 'master can secure a satisfactory decision, great loss and inconvenience may be caused to his owners. In extending the earlier remark, that from the time of deviation all exemptions and immunities are lost to the carrier, it is as well to point out that these are immediately lost, and they are not recoverable for the remainder of the trip, and the owner may suffer a Joss perhaps two or three days after deviation occurred, and steamer returned to her original course. It is, therefore, not advisable to accept this dause upon its face value.